The private international law rules for insurance contracts in the European Insurance Directives are of great importance for every lawyer involved in international business. These provisions become relevant whenever one is dealing with insurance products in a European context. These rules which apply to insurance contracts covering risks situated in the territories of the Member States of the European Community have currently been implemented by all the Member States of the European Union. The purpose of this book is to analyse the implementation rules of these choice of laws provisions in all the member States of the European Union. This Volume concentrates on seven major States such as Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Seven expert reports give an overview of the current state of the law. Insights are given into national practice and theoretical aspects are not neglected. This work is a unique collection which both scholars and practitioners willfind to be an invaluable source of reference in order to understand the complicated issues arising where cross border transactions occur in the field of insurance. Contributors: Dr. N. Auclair, University of Paris XI, France; Professor P. Blanco Morales Limones, University of Extremadura, Spain; Professor B. Dubuisson, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; Professor M. Frigessi di Rattalma, University of Brescia, Italy; Professor Burkhard Heβ , University of Tubingen, Germany; Dr. Torsten Hub, University of Tubingen, Germany; Dr. M. Koppenol-Laforce, Erasmus University, The Netherlands; Dr. I. MacNeil, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom; Dr. F. Seatzu, University of Cagliari, Italy
Are extreme weather events becoming more common? How do extreme weather events impact society? These are critical questions that must be examined as we confront the possibility that the world will experience a change in climate over the next century. Much of the research in climatology over the past decade has focused on potential changes in long- term averages of temperature, precipitation and other factors. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in average values will be accompanied by changes in extreme events. Furthermore, extreme weather events will impact society to a greater extent as people around the world continue to locate in more hazard-prone areas such as coastal zones. This book represents a major step forwards in developing a comprehensive set of information about changes in extreme events by providing a review of the problems in data availability, quality and analysis that make deriving a clear picture of world-wide changes in extreme events so difficult. Audience: The book is intended for policy-makers, professionals, graduate students and others interested in learning how extreme weather events have changed, and how they impact society both now and in the future.
Statistics published by the U. S. Department of Commerce (1980) indicate that in 1977 we spent 8. 1% of our gross national product (GNP) on life, health, property-casualty, and other forms of insurance. An additional 5. 7% was used to pay the Social Security tax, which is another form of insurance premium, for a total of 14. 8% of the GNP. Although insurance had its historical origin in marine insurance, it has now developed into one of the major industries of the American economy and extends into many areas of economic activity. One area where growth has been particularly strong is the medical sector. Health insurance is a major institution in all industrialized countries. It became a government responsibility in 1883 when Bismarck intro- duced a compulsory program of health insurance for industrial workers in Germany. Programs for workers in various industrial and income categories soon followed in other European countries-Austria (1888), Hungary (1891), Norway (1909), Servia (1910), Great Britain (1911), and Russia and Romania (1912) (Rubinow, 1913:250). Programs in these countries were extended in subsequent years, and other countries in Europe followed with their own programs. Consequently, today most industrial countries have universal or near-universal health insurance coverage. In the United States the issue of national health insurance has been seriously debated since just prior to World War I, and polling data since the 1930s show that a substantial majority of the public has been supportive of such a program (Erskine, 1975).
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